Friday, September 04, 2015

UTSA biology research could lead to treatments for PTSD and Alzheimer's

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(Dec. 15, 2009)--Led by Joe L. Martinez Jr., UTSA Ewing Halsell Distinguished Chair in Biology, a team of UTSA researchers found that radiation therapy can prevent the brain from forming some types of fearful memories. Further research may lead to treatments for post-traumatic stress disorder and Alzheimer's disease.

Radiation therapy reduces the number of new granule cells in the hippocampus, the part of the brain responsible for autobiographical memory. Cranial irradiation, or radiation of the skull, is commonly used as a treatment to prevent cancer from spreading to the brain. However, long-term cognitive impairments, such as the inability to learn or remember new tasks, often occur as a result of the procedure.

The researchers tested the ability of rats to form three types of fear memories: delay fear memories, context fear memories and trace fear memories. Delay fear memories form when a fearful situation occurs simultaneously with another event. Context fear memories form when a fearful situation follows another event and both take place in the same physical space. Trace fear memories form when an event and a fearful situation are separated by a pause.

Combining biological and psychological approaches in the laboratory, the researchers observed the behavior of rats not producing new granule cells in their brains. The researchers observed that the rats were able to form delay and fear memories but were unable to form trace fear memories. The findings led them to believe that new granule cells are not required in the hippocampus of the brain to form delay and context fear memories but are required for the formation of trace fear memories.

"This research has broad applications including treatments for post-traumatic stress disorder and Alzheimer's disease," said Martinez. "If we can pinpoint the neurons in the hippocampus that are responsible for storing trace fear memories, we may be able to selectively erase negative memories by decreasing the number of new granule cells in the brain. Or, we may be able to prevent memory loss by preventing the death of new granule cells. Such therapies could definitely enhance an individual's life, but we have a long way to go before we put the theory into practice."

 

 

Did You Know?

UTSA writes the book on all-digital libraries

As touch screens and e-books demand more and more attention from both casual readers and scholars, many people say the handwriting is on the wall for the printed page.

At UTSA, the handwriting is on the wall for a library that doesn't have any printed books.

Since March 2010, the bookless library in the Applied Engineering and Technology Building has given UTSA students an innovative way to read, research and work with each other to solve problems.

With ultra-modern furniture and a décor featuring desktop computers, scanners and LCD screens, the AET Library is designed to engage students in an online format. But it also offers group study niches and study rooms with whiteboards and glass walls on which students can write. The space encourages teamwork, communications and problem solving for the next generation of scientists and professional engineers.

Did you know? The UTSA AET Library is the nation's first completely bookless library on a college or university campus. It served as a model for Bexar County's first-in-the-nation public bookless library system and one of its branches, the Dr. Ricardo Romo BiblioTech.

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Sept. 7, All Day

Labor Day Holiday

All campuses will be closed for the Labor Day holiday.
All Campuses

Sept. 9, 5:30 p.m.

Architecture Connects

The UTSA College of Architecture, Construction and Planning’s 2015-16 Speaker Series begins Sept. 9 with Toshiko Mori, the Robert P. Hubbard Professor in the Practice of Architecture at the Harvard University Graduate School of Design and principal of Manhattan-based Toshiko Mori Architect.
Buena Vista Building Aula Canaria (BV 1.328), Downtown Campus

Sept. 12, 11 a.m.

UTSA Football vs. Kansas State

Cheer on the UTSA Roadrunners at their home-opener against the Kansas State Wildcats.
Alamodome, 100 Montana St.

Sept. 15, 5:30 - 7 p.m.

Changing the Conversation: Recovery Works!

As part of National Recovery Month, a panel of substance abuse practitioners and members of the recovery community will discuss issues related to substance abuse treatment and recovery.
Durango Building 1.124 (DB 1.124), Downtown Campus

Sept. 24, 6 p.m.

The Power of Story in the Landscape of Memory and Identity

The UTSA College of Education and Human Development will host award-winning children’s author and illustrator Yuyi Morales. Morales will share personal stories that have influenced her work as an author and illustrator.
Buena Vista Building Aula Canaria (BV 1.328), Downtown Campus

Oct. 5, 9 a.m. - 3 p.m.

Civic Engagement Summit

This summit is an opportunity to showcase and share the variety of community engagement activities of UTSA students, faculty, and staff. The summit is currently accepting proposals for poster presentations. The Call for Posters deadline is Friday, Sept. 11.
University Center Denman Room (2.01.28), Main Campus


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