UTSA

Center for Water Research
Science Building 1.03.04

Projects

Message from the Director: Advances in statewide water planning have opened a world of opportunities for UTSA and the Center for Water Research (CWR). The CWR serves as a catalyst and research focal point for faculty from the various disciplines represented in the CWR structure. The CWR offers multi-interdisciplinary approach to education and research, offers the collaborative expertise of engineers and scientists to determine efficient and effective strategies for research and data acquisition to assist in the identification and solution to water resource problems. In addition, the CWR actively supports academic programs in the Colleges of Sciences and Engineering.

A network of local, state, and federal agencies has been created to further the educational and informational needs of the communities we serve. From inception in 1987, the CWR has been an integral partner and participant in state and regional water resources studies and planning efforts.

The CWR projects are based on challenging research and educational opportunities. Hydrologic, geologic, environmental, and other basic data are considered for water resource planning and management both in terms of cost and applicability.

The research and growth of the CWR reflects an increasing concern for the enhancement and preservation of the quality and quantity of water resources.

Most significant research accomplishments during 2009 and 2010:

(1) Acquisition and utilization of a suite of geophysical instruments in groundwater resource investigations. This research equipment gives CWR personnel the ability to investigate the potential for groundwater in regions for which little or no hydrogeologic information is available. Certain geophysical techniques and instruments enable researchers to determine the quality and quantity of groundwater in a given area.

(2) Source of nitrogen contamination in shallow groundwater in the Leona aquifer, Medina County Texas. Abnormally high nitrate levels in groundwater from the Leona aquifer have caused sickness in humans and livestock. The source for this nitrate is tied to soil-derived nitrogen from certain woody legumes and the concentration of groundwater during drought periods to paleo channels at the base of the Leona Gravel.

(3) Determination of potential groundwater resources, conceptual modeling of water delivery systems and water demands for remote villages in Jalisco, Mexico. This research was funded by a private industry engaged in agribusiness and focused on bringing new potable water supplies to remote villages where a substantial number of agricultural workers live without adequate water supplies.

Major collaborative research associations with other programs or organizations:

(1) National Autonomous University of Honduras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras (UNAH). Groundwater resources investigations in the Departments of El Paraiso, Copan, Santa Barbara and Francisco Morazan, Honduras. The goal of these projects is to develop accessible water sources for disadvantaged communities and rural areas in Honduras. Analysis of the geography to define watersheds in conjunction with geophysical studies is conducted to identify adequate water sources. In addition to exploration for water, well logging tests are performed to analyze and monitor the productivity of existing water wells. UTSA and UNAH cooperate in field investigations, information and data collection and the design of water resources systems to insure sustainability of water supplies. UTSA and UNAH have also cooperated in the design of community sand filtration systems to assure potable water supplies. Several articles have been co-authored by UNAH and UTSA faculty members. Through this agreement, UTSA also provides used text books to increase the information available to UNAH faculty and students. Principal contacts: Weldon W. Hammond, Ph.D. and Louis R. Manz, Ph.D.

(2) Escuela Agricola Panamericana El Zamorano, Honduras (Zamorano). This agreement was signed in May 2010 and focuses on environmental science, hydrology, hydrogeology and water quality field investigations and training for Central American and UTSA students. The focus is to teach the application of advanced water research and quality control methods for small water systems. The present agreement includes provision of laboratory space, storage and teaching facilities which are a part of the Zamorano campus. Principal contacts: Louis R. Manz, Ph.D. and Weldon W. Hammond, Ph.D.

(3) Real time monitoring wells in a pilot program for the Trinity Aquifer in Kendall County in cooperation with the Cow Creek Groundwater District, Texas Commission on Environmental Quality, Texas Water Development Board, United States Geological Survey, Guadalupe-Blanco River Authority and the Guadalupe-Blanco River Trust. The CWR will have a continued role as the repository for all collected data for the groundwater district.

(4) World Vision Cooperation. World Vision is a world-wide organization involved in building the infrastructure of developing areas of the world and increasing the ability of these areas to aliviate poverty and to improve health and education standards. The CWR is working with World Vision and several other organizations to locate, design, and develop water systems in poverty stricken areas. The CWR work will include location of water sources, improvements in water quality, water hygiene training and complete water system designs. Principal contacts: Louis R. Manz, Ph.D. and Weldon W. Hammond, Ph.D.

(5) Diocese of Honduras, Episcopal Church. The Episcopal Diocese of Honduras and the Diocese of West Texas have been working cooperatively with the CWR for nine years to develop a program to provide safe, adequate water sources to people in the Department of El Paraiso, Honduras. This project was initiated by CWR members and has been developed in consultation with Hondurans to find the best sources of water to fulfill village needs. To date, over 47 wells have been constructed and the majority have remained in operation. This work has also been used to train UTSA and UNAH students on field techniques as well as to provide the model for cooperation with UNAH and Zamorano. Principal contacts: Louis R. Manz, Ph.D. and Weldon W. Hammond, Ph.D.

(6) Rotary Club, Danli, Honduras.

(7) Rotary International. The CWR has worked with Rotary International and two local Rotary Clubs in Honduras to located and develop approximately 13 water wells for villages they have chosen to aid in their respective locales. A majority of these wells have proven to be sufficiently productive to warrant design and construction of complete water systems that provide storage and service to houses in the respective communities. Louis R. Manz, Ph.D. and Weldon W. Hammond, Ph.D.

(8) Servico Autonomo Nacional de Aqueductos Y Alcantarilladas (SANAA) (National water supply and waste water system of Honduras). The CWR has substantially cooperated with SANAA on the design and location of water sources for over seven years. This cooperation has included water quality testing and well design as well as investigations into providing water to very remote villages that cannot be served by the Honduran government. The CWR works with an employee of SANAA to conduct periodic tests for water quality in wells that have been constructed. Weldon W. Hammond, Ph.D. and Louis R. Manz, Ph.D.

(9) San Javier Community Water System Project, Chiapas, Mexico.

(10) Desert Glory, Inc., an irrigated agriculture enterprise in Jalisco, Mexico.

(11) U.S. Army, Camp Stanley.

(12) U.S. Air Force, Lackland Air Force base, Kelly Air Force base and Brooks City Base.



Active and Completed Grants administered by the Center for Water Research:

Agency: U.S. Department of Education, Washington, D.C.

Principal Investigator: Hongjie Xie, Ph.D.
Co-Principal Investigators: Hatim Sharif, Ph.D., Lance Lambert, Ph.D.

Award Date: October 1, 2010

Project Title: "Minority Opportunities for Research Experience in Earth Science and Environmental Engineering at the University of Texas at San Antonio (MORESE at UTSA)".

Project Summary: The University of Texas at San Antonio (UTSA) is a Hispanic Serving Institution offering undergraduate and graduate degrees to more than 28,000 mostly first generation college students from San Antonio and South Texas. The unifying goal of this project is to encourage a greater number of underrepresented undergraduates to pursuse careers in the Earth Sciences and/or Environmental Engineering. This will be accomplished through the establishment of extensive educational resources, which will provide a unique opportunity for underrepresented minorities at all levels of education to pursue studies and ultimately careers in science and engineering.

Project Status: Active.

Student Support: Provided.


Agency: Texas Water Development Board

Principal Investigator: Judith Haschenburger, Ph.D.

Award Date: March 18, 2010

Project Title: "Mobility and impact of large woody debris in the lower San Antonio River"

Project Summary: The importance of large woody debris (LWD) in rivers is well documented and far reaching. LCD influences stream hydraulics and river geomorphology, and thus, exerts control over sediment dynamics, bed material characteristics, and channel morphology and stability. LWD is also a crucial component of healthy freshwater ecosystems because it increases the diversity of habitat within the channel and creates specialized refugia for a range of biota. This study aims to quantify the mobility and influence of LWD in the lower San Antonio River. In this reach, LWD may play a significant role in causing channel instability at large flows, such as channel avulsion. The specific objectives are to: (1) describe the characteristics, and where appropriate quantify, LWD in the channel; (2) Assess the mobility of LWD for the range of flood magnitudes that occur during the study period; (3) assess the impact of LWD on overbank flooding; and (4) evaluate the role of LWD on changing the position of the channel, including the Elm Bayou distributary.

Project Status: Active.

Student Support: Provided.



Agency: The University of Texas at San Antonio, Office of the Vice President for Research Collaborative Research Seed Grant Program

Principal Investigator: Kyle Murray, Ph.D.
Co-Principal Investigator: Frank G. Healy, Ph.D.

Award Date: September 28, 2009

Project Title: "Lipid-Based Biofuels Using Algal Feedstock Platforms"

Project Summary: The imminent exhaustion of petroleum-based biofuels requires the identification and development of alternative and renewable fuel sources. The extraction of lipids from algal sources and their conversion to combustible ester derivatives represents a promising technology with the potential to meet future energy demands. Economically attractive lipid-based biofuels technologies would depend on the identification and development of algal organisms with desirable physiological traits such as high growth rates and lipid yield.

Project Status: Active.

Student Support: Provided.


Agency: Texas Water Development Board (TWDB)

Principal Investigator: Judith Haschenburger, Ph.D.

Award Date: January 30, 2009

Project Title: "Sediment Transport Modeling of Channeling Scale Geomorphic Processes"

Project Summary: This study aims to determine the flow and sediment loadings necessary to achieve channel scale geomorphic processes, such as the scour of pools and fill of riffles and bars, by developing an appropriate modeling strategy. In this study the San Antonio River will be used as a test case. The specific objectives are to: (1) develop geomorphic process modules that consider different morphologies and sediment characteristics and are driven by input from a hydraulic model; (2) predict the flow magnitudes and sediment loadings necessary to achieve specific channel scale geomorphic processes using the process modules and evaluate results using empirical data where possible; and (3) estimate the stability of morphological features in the channel for a set of flow magnitudes and sediment loadings using the process modules and evaluate results using empirical data where possible.

Project Status: Active.

Student Support: Provided.


Agency: Texas Water Development Board (TWDB)

Principal Investigator: Judith Haschenburger, Ph.D.
Sub-Contractor: Joanna Curran, Ph.D.

Award Date: January 30, 2009

Project Title: "Sediment Transport Modeling of Reach Scale Geomorphic Processes"

Project Summary: This study aims to investigate the utility of coupling sediment transport models and standard hydraulic models to predict the flow magnitudes necessary to achieve reach scale geomorphic processes, such as floodplain deposition. In this study the San Antonio River will be used as a test case. The specific objectives are: (1) Develop an appropriate hydraulic modeling strategy that can be sued in assessing reach scale geomorphic processes for a range of channel morphologies and sediment characteristics found in the San Antonio River; (2) Predict the flow magnitudes necessary to achieve specific reach scale geomorphic processes using the calibrated model and evaluate results using empirical data where possible.

Project Status: Completed.

Student Support: Provided.


Agency:Colorado School of Mines

Principal Investigator: Kyle Murray, Ph.D.

Award Date: January 26, 2009

Project Title: "GIS and Web-based Water Resources Geospatial Infrastructure for Oil Shale Development"

Project Summary: The principle objective of the project is to develop a water resource geospatial infrastructure (including data, toolsets, analytical models and Graphical user interfaces (GUIs), to provide water management solutions to facilitate decision making for potential oil shale resource development in the Western U.S. and to facilitate environmental impact studies (EIS), and cost estimation under different scenarios.

Project Status: Active.

Student Support: Provided.


Agency: San Antonio Water System (SAWS)

Principal Investigator: Drew Johnson, Ph.D.
Co-Principal Investigator: Heather Shipley, Ph.D.

Award Date: December 2, 2008

Project Title: "Work Item 2009-1: UTSA Corrosion and Odor Control Study"

Project Summary: To gain a better understanding of sulfide generation, and related odor producing mechanisms, in the SAWS wastewater collection network. Sulfide levels in excess of 0.5 mg/L are well known to generate odor complaints and contribute to corrosion with the collection system. The work order objective shall be to evaluate data collection methods that enable optimization of chemical dosing, for better sulfide control at reduced chemical cost.

Project Status: Completed.

Student Support: Provided.


Agency: Desert Glory, Ltd.

Principal Investigator: Louis R. Manz, Ph.D.
Co-Principal Investigator: Weldon W. Hammond, Ph.D.

Award Date: September 22, 2008

Project Title: "Providing Adequate, Sustainable Water Supplies for Villages in the Vicinity of Tuxcacuesco, Mexico"

Project Summary: Field research to provide adequate water to villages in the vicinity of the town of Tuxcacuesco, Jalisco, Mexico that are inhabited in part by employees of the company. The research is to support a general determination of the feasibility of providing a system for safe, adequate water for human consumption in six villages in the area of the Desert Glory agricultural operations.

Project Status: Completed.

Student Support: Provided.


Agency: Panhandle Groundwater Conservation District

Principal Investigator: Alan Dutton, Ph.D.

Award Date: January 23, 2008

Project Title: "Groundwater Analysis Modeling"

Project Summary: This project provides technical support to the Panhandle Groundwater Conservation District for evaluating, predicting, and analyzing changes in groundwater levels associated with various proposed or anticipated groundwater development projects in Roberts County and elsewhere in the District. Work to be performed is performance of groundwater analysis and groundwater modeling as needed to evaluate predicted drawdown in water levels in the Ogallala aquifer given specified schedules for production of groundwater in the District.

Project Status: Completed.

Student Support: Provided.


Agency: Noblis, Inc.

Principal Investigator: Adria Bodour, Ph.D.

Award Date: November 28, 2007

Project Title: "Optimization of Microbial Reductive Dechlorination of Chlorinated Aliphatic Hydrocarbons at Camp Stanley Storage Activity, Boerne, Texas"

Project Summary:

Project Status: Completed.

Student Support: Provided.


Gift Support

Recipients: Adria Bodour, Ph.D., and Paul Jurena, Ph.D.

Date: August 27, 2007

Project Title: "Texas Hill Country"

Project Summary: Research on the microbial and plant ecology of the Texas Hill Country.

Project Status: Completed.

Student Support: Provided.


Agency: National Geographic Society

Principal Investigator: Judith K. Haschenburger, Ph.D.

Award Date: May 24, 2007

Project Title: "A Time-Integrated map of Streambed Stability"

Project Summary: The overall stability of streambeds and health of aquatic habitats are governed by the cumulative effects of floods that span a range of magnitudes. To develop a longer-term understanding of the spatial patterns of streambed dynamics, the objective of this research was to establish how stability varies over a streambed in response to a long flood series. Field observations were collected in Carnation Creek, a salmon-spawning stream located on the west coast of Vancouver Island, Canada. Streambed disturbance was documented by monitoring the positions of individual clasts tagged with magnets over time to produce maps of the frequency of disturbance with a Geographic Information System. The spatial patterns of disturbance frequency were analyzed against streambed elevation and proximity to the flow channel and channel banks to elucidate the controls over bed stability.

Project Status: Completed.

Student Support: Provided.


Agency: BexarMet Water District

Principal Investigator: Adria Bodour, Ph.D.
Co-Principal Investigator: Kyle Murray, Ph.D.

Award Date: July 1, 2007

Project Title: "Biofouling Evaluation and Maintenance Plan for Staggs Ranch Wells"

Project Summary: This project will collect groundwater samples from three wells at the BexarMet Water District Staggs Ranch site, and grow biofilms in situ. The water and biofilms will be evaluated in laboratory-scale treatment experiments.

Project Status: Completed.

Student Support: Provided.


Agency: The Edwards Aquifer Authority

Principal Investigator: Adria Bodour, Ph.D.

Award Date: July 2, 2007

Project Title: "To Perform Microbial Source Tracking of Fecal Pollution in the Edwards Aquifer"

Project Summary:

Project Status: Completed.

Student Support: Provided.



Agency: City of Kenedy

Principal Investigator: Kyle Murray, Ph.D.

Award Date: May 8, 2007

Project Title: "Water Supply Potential of Existing Wells: City of Kenedy"

Project Summary: The objectives of this project were to measure capacity (e.g., yield) of existing wells and hydraulic characteristics of aquifer(s), assess integrity of existing well casings, pumps, and piping for existing wells, evaluate water quality and chemistry of water in existing wells, and analyze data to support further exploration of treatment alternatives and permitting by the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality (TCEQ).

Project Status: Completed.

Student Support: Provided.


Gift Support

Recipients: Alan Dutton, Ph.D., and Kyle Murray, Ph.D.

Date: February 22, 2007

Project Title: "Texas Hill Country"

Project Summary: Research on the hydrogeology of the Texas Hill Country.

Project Status: Active.

Student Support: Provided.



Edwards (Balcones Fault Zone) Aquifer

Principal Investigator: Alan Dutton, Ph.D.

Award Date: October 23, 2006

Project Title: "To Improve the Conceptual Model of Specific Storage of the Edwards Aquifer"

Project Summary: The Edwards (Balcones Fault Zone) aquifer is a maturely studied karst aquifer with abundant hydrogeologic data. Detailed information on its karst heterogeneities remains scant, of course, in comparison to their importance for water transport. Nonetheless, several numerical models of the San Antonio segment of the aquifer have been developed for both interpretive and predictive purposes. Since 1979 the so-called GWIM model, constructed using the PLASM code, has been commonly used to simulate groundwater resources in the aquifer. In 2005 a new model of the Edwards aquifer, developed using Modflow, was released (here named the GWMAP model). The GWSIM and Modflow models are independently constructed models that differ in many ways, including but not limited to model cell size, model extent, hydrogeologic properties; pumping characteristics, and how recharge rates are assigned. The two models also differ in calibration statistics; the new Modflow model’s calibrations for both hydraulic head and spring discharge generally is improved compared to those of GWSIM.

Simulation of hypothetical pumping scenarios representing aquifer-management options shows that the two models give generally consistent results. Simulated scenarios included a 73,000 acre-foot/yr reduction in pumping for municipal-water supply from the San Antonio pool and a 98,000 acre-foot/yr increase in pumping from the Uvalde pool for pipeline transfer to the big San Antonio municipal market. Scenario evaluation considered impacts on discharge at Leona, Comal, and San Marcos Springs and on water levels at the J-17 and J-27 index wells. Consistent simulation results from multiple independent models provide reliable support policy decisions involving management of groundwater resources.

Project Status: Completed.

Student Support: Provided.



Agency: Texas Tech University

Principal Investigator: Kyle Murray, Ph.D.

Award Date: October 6, 2006

Project Title: "GIS Study of the Ports-to-Plains Corridor"

Project Summary: Summarize transportation data with particular focus on trade generated traffic, social and economic data (e.g., highway/interstate miles, 2000 census, primary industry, water supply source, energy provider, etc.) for each of the 38 counties along the Ports-to-Plains corridor. This project increased awareness of the potential impact of Ports-to-Plains on development within the region.

Project Status: Completed.

Student Support: Provided.



Agency: Colorado Department of Transportation (sub-contract from Colorado School of Mines)

Principal Investigators: Kyle Murray, (UTSA), Paul Santi (CSM), Jerry Higgins (CSM)


Project Title: "Rockfall Hazard Data Management System"


Award Date: August 24, 2006


Project Summary: This is one of three tasks in a project for the Colorado Department of Transportation (CDOT). This task focuses on collection of GPS locations for rockfall hazards, compilation of hazard information into a GIS database, and integration of the rockfall hazard GIS database with a CDOT decision support system.

Project Status: Completed.

Student Support: Provided.



Agency: City of San Antonio

Principal Investigator: Kyle Murray, Ph.D.

Award Date: March 17, 2006

Project Title: "Management Practices for Natural Waterways"

Project Summary: This project is supported by the City of San Antonio and represents a collaboration with several agency stakeholders and citizen stakeholders interesting in improving, maintaining and preserving the waterways in San Antonio and the Extra Territorial Jurisdiction (ETJ). The main product will be a report that serves as educational material and guidelines for selecting management practices (e.g., debris removal, removal of invasive exotics, erosion control, tree and understory vegetation management, etc.) within waterways of San Antonio and the ETJ.

Project Status: Completed.

Student Support: Provided.



Agency: United States Department of Agriculture (USDA)

Principal Investigator: Paul Jurena, Ph.D.
Co-Principal Investigator: Adria Bodour, Ph.D.

Award Date: June 20, 2005

Project Title: "Building a Research Based Bridge between HIS and a Land-Grant University for Grad Studies in Environmental Science"

Project Summary: The overall goal and mission of the "University of Texas at San Antonio/Texas A&M Research Program is to increase the number of first generation and economically disavantaged students participating in environmental science and rangeland ecology and to develop the environmental and rangeland ecology research capability of the UTSA faculty.

Project Status: Completed.

Student Support: Provided.


Agency: San Antonio Water System (SAWS)

Principal Investigators: Kelly Brumbelow (TAMU), Kyle Murray (UTSA), Cheryl Linthicum (UTSA)

Award Date: February 18, 2005

Project Title: "Audit of Operations and Infrastructure using International Water Association Standards"

Project Summary: This project is a multi-disciplinary study of the physical loss of water and losses of revenue for the main water purveyor in the San Antonio area. The project will include faculty and students from three departments Civil Engineering, Earth and Environmental Science, and Accounting.

Project Status: Completed.

Student Support: Provided.



Agency: Water Environment Research Foundation (sub-contract from Colorado School of Mines)


Principal Investigators: John McCray (CSM), Eileen Poeter (CSM), Kyle Murray (UTSA), David Morgan (USGS), M. Evans (Univ. of Rhode Island)


Project Title: "Modeling Watershed Scale Impacts of Onsite Wastewater Systems"

Project Summary: The primary objective of this research project is to develop a user-friendly Guidance Document for the selection and application of watershed modeling tools for simulating impacts of onsite-wastewater pollutants at the watershed scale. We will develop calibrated models for three watersheds that are thought to be potentially impacted from decentralized wastewater treatment systems (DWTS). These watersheds vary in size and have different problems and target contaminants. Each of these three watersheds is expected to be undergoing TMDL application in the next 3 to 5 years.

Project Status: Completed.

Student Support: Provided.



Agency: San Antonio Life Sciences Institute

Principal Investigator: Dibyendu Sarker, Ph.D.

Award Date: December 8, 2004

Project Title: "A Multidisciplinary Approach to Reduce Human Bioavailability and Carcinogenicity of Soil Arsenic "

Project Summary: The primary objective of this proposal is to design novel in-situ chemical and phytoremediation methods to reduce human bioavailability of arsenic from ingestion of pesticide-contaminated soils.

Project Status: Completed.

Student Support: Provided.



Agency: Department of Housing and Urban Development

Principal Investigators: Dibyendu Sarker, Ph.D.
Co-principal Investigator: Rupali Datta, Ph.D.

Award Date: September 29, 2004

Project Title: "A Novel Phytoremediation Method using Vetiver Grass to Cleanup Lead-Based Paint Contaminated Soils"

Project Summary: This project intends to investigate the effect of soil and plant properties on a novel chelate-assisted phytoremediation technique for the cleanup of lead-based paint-contaminated soils.

Project Status: Completed.

Student Support: Provided.



Agency: San Antonio Water Systems (SAWS)

Principal Investigator: Alan Dutton

Award Date: January 11, 2004

Project Title: "Analysis and Evaluation of Uvalde Groundwater Well Field Simulations"

Project Summary: Principal Investigator will make comparative simulations of possible Uvalde County groundwater well field to evaluate the affect of legacy model-user adaptations and to compare the results of new MODFLOW and old GWSIM-IV models.

Project Status: Completed.

Student Support: Provided.



Agency: Environmental Protection Agency

Principal Investigators: Dibyendu Sarker, Ph.D.

Award Date: March 27, 2003

Project Title: "Biogeochemistry of Arsenic in Contaminated Soils of Superfund Sites "

Project Summary: There are many superfund sites where soils are severely contaminated with arsenic as a result of over-application of arsenical pesticides. Since arsenic is classified as a Group-A carcinogen, an elevated health risk is associated with long-term human exposure to arsenic in pesticide-applied soils. A greenhouse study is proposed to study fate, bioavailability and phyto/chemoremediation of arsenic in such soils as a function of soil properties.

Project Status: Completed.

Student Support: Provided.



Agency: Texas Higher Education Coordinating Board

Principal Investigators: Dibyendu Sarker, Ph.D.

Award Date: March 27, 2003

Project Title: "Supplemental High School Teacher Grant-Advanced Research Program, THECB"

Project Summary: In response to THECB's request, this grant application solicits funds to train a High School teacher in modern scientific research during Summer 2003.

Project Status: Completed.

Student Support: Provided.



Agency: Texas Higher Education Coordinating Board

Principal Investigators: Dibyendu Sarker, Ph.D.

Award Date: November 7, 2001

Project Title: "Geochemical Fate and Bioavailabilityof Arsenic in Pesticide-Applied Soils: Phase I: In-Vitro Study"

Project Summary: Years of widespread application of arsenic based pesticides has increased the background concentrations of the oxyanion in agricultural soils, such as the cotton soils of Texas. Soil ingestion from incidental hand-to-mouth activity is now a very important issue in assessing human health risk associated with exposure to arsenic-rich soils. An appropriate in-vitro technique to predict arsenic bioavailability will be investigated.

Project Status: Completed.

Student Support: Provided.