Operating System and Distributed Computing Software



CentOS Linux operating system

CentOS (abbreviated from Community Enterprise Operating System) is a RHEL-based Linux distribution that attempts to provide a free, enterprise-class, community-supported computing platform which aims to be functionally compatible with its upstream source, Red Hat Enterprise Linux (RHEL).

CentOs is freely available and can be downloaded at https://www.centos.org/download/


Ubuntu Linux operating system

Ubuntu is a Debian-based Linux operating system.  It is built on Debian's architecture and infrastructure to provide Linux server, desktop, phone, tablet and TV operating systems. The variant officially recommended for most users, and officially supported by Canonical, is Ubuntu Desktop (formally named as Ubuntu Desktop Edition, and simply called Ubuntu), designed for desktop and laptop PCs using Unity Desktop interface (earlier versions used GNOME).

The system development is led by UK-based Canonical Ltd.

It is free to download at http://www.ubuntu.com/download.


Red Hat Linux operating system

Red Hat Linux is a RPM-based Linux operating system, assembled by the company Red Hat. It was a widely used free Linux distribution until its discontinuation in 2004, when Red Hat discontinued the Red Hat Linux line in favor of Red Hat Enterprise Linux (RHEL) for enterprise environments. Red Hat Linux 9, the final release, hit its official end-of-life on April 30, 2004.

Fedora, developed by the community-supported Fedora Project and sponsored by Red Hat, is a free-of-cost alternative intended for home use.

It can be download for free at https://getfedora.org.


Rocks Cluster Distribution

Rocks Cluster Distribution (originally called NPACI Rocks) is a Linux distribution intended for high-performance computing clusters. Rocks was initially based on the Red Hat Linux distribution, however modern versions of Rocks were based on CentOS, with a modified Anaconda installer that simplifies mass installation onto many computers. Rocks includes many tools (such as MPI) which are not part of CentOS but are integral components that make a group of computers into a cluster. The advantage of using Rocks to build and maintain your cluster is simple. Many HPC clusters, from a few nodes to thousands of nodes, are built by Rocks.

Rocks is freely available at http://www.rocksclusters.org/.




Hadoop is a framework that allows for the distributed processing of large data sets across clusters of computers using simple programming models. It is designed to scale up from single servers to thousands of machines, each offering local computation and storage. The core of Apache Hadoop consists of a storage part, known as Hadoop Distributed File System (HDFS), and a processing part called MapReduce. Hadoop splits files into large blocks and distributes them across nodes in a cluster. To process data, Hadoop transfers packaged code for nodes to process in parallel based on the data that needs to be processed.

Hadoop is freely available at http://hadoop.apache.org/releases.html.

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