MAY 26, 2021 — Researchers from UTSA, the University of Central Florida (UCF), the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) and SRI International have developed a new method that improves how artificial intelligence learns to see.
Led by Sumit Jha, professor in the Department of Computer Science at UTSA, the team has changed the conventional approach employed in explaining machine learning decisions that relies on a single injection of noise into the input layer of a neural network.
The team shows that adding noise—also known as pixilation—along multiple layers of a network provides a more robust representation of an image that’s recognized by the AI and creates more robust explanations for AI decisions. This work aids in the development of what’s been called “explainable AI” which seeks to enable high-assurance applications of AI such as medical imaging and autonomous driving.
“It’s about injecting noise into every layer,” Jha said. “The network is now forced to learn a more robust representation of the input in all of its internal layers. If every layer experiences more perturbations in every training, then the image representation will be more robust and you won’t see the AI fail just because you change a few pixels of the input image.”
Computer vision—the ability to recognize images—has many business applications. Computer vision can better identify areas of concern in the livers and brains of cancer patients. This type of machine learning can also be employed in many other industries. Manufacturers can use it to detect defection rates, drones can use it to help detect pipeline leaks, and agriculturists have begun using it to spot early signs of crop disease to improve their yields.
Through deep learning, a computer is trained to perform behaviors, such as recognizing speech, identifying images or making predictions. Instead of organizing data to run through set equations, deep learning works within basic parameters about a data set and trains the computer to learn on its own by recognizing patterns using many layers of processing.
The team’s work, led by Jha, is a major advancement to previous work he’s conducted in this field. In a 2019 paper presented at the AI Safety workshop co-located with that year’s International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence (IJCAI), Jha, his students and colleagues from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory demonstrated how poor conditions in nature can lead to dangerous neural network performance. A computer vision system was asked to recognize a minivan on a road, and did so correctly. His team then added a small amount of fog and posed the same query again to the network: the AI identified the minivan as a fountain. As a result, their paper was a best paper candidate.
In most models that rely on neural ordinary differential equations (ODEs), a machine is trained with one input through one network, and then spreads through the hidden layers to create one response in the output layer. This team of UTSA, UCF, AFRL and SRI researchers use a more dynamic approach known as a stochastic differential equations (SDEs). Exploiting the connection between dynamical systems and show that neural SDEs lead to less noisy, visually sharper, and quantitatively robust attributions than those computed using neural ODEs.The SDE approach learns not just from one image but from a set of nearby images due to the injection of the noise in multiple layers of the neural network. As more noise is injected, the machine will learn evolving approaches and find better ways to make explanations or attributions simply because the model created at the onset is based on evolving characteristics and/or the conditions of the image. It’s an improvement on several other attribution approaches including saliency maps and integrated gradients.
Jha’s new research is described in the paper “On Smoother Attributions using Neural Stochastic Differential Equations.” Fellow contributors to this novel approach include UCF’s Richard Ewetz, AFRL’s Alvaro Velazquez and SRI’s Susmit Jha. The lab is funded by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, the Office of Naval Research and the National Science Foundation. Their research will be presented at the IJCAI 2021, a conference with about a 14% acceptance rate for submissions. Past presenters at this highly selective conference have included Facebook and Google.
“I am delighted to share the fantastic news that our paper on explainable AI has just been accepted at IJCAI,” Jha added. “This is a big opportunity for UTSA to be part of the global conversation on how a machine sees.”
This town hall will include remarks from campus leadership and a presentation of the Campus Climate survey results by Rich Boyer, founding partner of ModernThink, LLC. There will be time for faculty and staff to ask questions and learn more about how the survey data can inform strategies to promote a welcoming and inclusive environment for working, teaching and research at UTSA.Virtual Event
Thematic voice recitals featuring student performances from the Recital Hall stage and live-streamed via our Facebook page.Recital Hall, 1 UTSA Circle, Main Campus
Mental Health Day is an annual campus-wide event taking place at the University of Texas at San Antonio. The event aims to bring students, faculty, and staff together to learn about the significance of taking care of their mental health.Virtual Event
The tuba and euphonium students of Gary Poffenbarger and John Caputo will perform festive pieces in the first of two recitals. More details to come. The Fall 2021 concert schedule is subject to change. Please continue to monitor our website and social media for updates. This concert will be live-streamed via the UTSA Music Facebook page. https://www.facebook.com/UTSAMusicUTSA Recital Hall, Main Campus
The students of Dr. Isaac Bustos and Prof. Johnny Pena will perform from the Recital Hall stage and via the Department's Facebook page.Recital Hall, 1 UTSA Circle, Main Campus
Presentation by Dr. Ainhoa Vásquez Mejías, professor and researcher from UNAM in Mexico City. It will focus on the influence of drug traffic on different areas of culture, and specifically on literature.Virtual Event
The second of two recitals featuring the tuba and euphonium students of Gary Poffenbarger and John Caputo. More details to come. The Fall 2021 concert schedule is subject to change. Please continue to monitor our website and social media for updates. This concert will be live-streamed via the UTSA Music Facebook page. https://www.facebook.com/UTSAMusicUTSA Recital Hall, Main Campus
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