85.   Gonzalez-Fernandez, F. Sung, D., Haswell, K., Tsin, A. and Ghosh, D. Thiol-dependent Antioxidant Activity of Interphotoreceptor Retinoid-Binding Protein. Experimental Eye Research, 120 : 167 - 174, 2014. Full Paper

84.   Muniz, A.,  Greene, W.A., Plamper, M.L., Choi, H.H., Johnson, A.J., Tsin, A.T. and Wang, H-C.  Retinoid Uptake, Processing, and Secretion in Human iPS RPE Support the Visual Cycle. Invest. Opthamology & Visual Science, 55: 198-209, 2014. Full Paper


83.   Yust B. G., Sardar D.K., Mimun L.C., Gangadharan A.K, and Tsin A.T., Rare Earth Doped Nanoparticles in Imaging and PDT. Nanoscale Imaging, Sensing, and Actuation for Biomedical Applications X. 8594: 85940D, 2013. Full Paper; Figures

82. Obregon D.I., Betts-Obregon B.S., Yust B, Pedraza F., Ortiz A., Sardar D, and Tsin, AT..Effect of Silver Coating on Barium Titanium Oxide Nanoparticle Toxicity.  Advanced Materials Research, Vol. 787 (2013) pp 404-407. © (2013) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland. doi:10.4028/ , 2013. Full Paper, Figures

81. F. J. Barrera, B.Yust, L. C. Mimun, K. L. Nash, A. T. Tsin, D. K. Sardar1*, "Optical and Spectroscopic Properties of Human Whole Blood and Plasma with and without Y2O3 and Nd3+:Y2O3 Nanoparticles ", .  Lasers in Medical Science, E-publication ahead of print - DOI 10.1007/s10103-013-1268-7 , 2013. Full Paper, Figures

80. Parvathaneni, K. Grigsby, J.G.,Betts, B, Tsin, A.T.C. Estrogen-Induced Retinal Endothelial Cell Proliferation-Possible Involvement of PEDF and PI3K/MAPK Pathways. Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics, 29 (1): 27-32, 2013. Full PaperFigures


79. B. Yust, N. Razavi, F. Pedraza, Z. Elliott, A. Tsin, and D. Sardar, "Enhancement of nonlinear optical properties of BaTiO3 nanoparticles by the addition of silver seeds," Opt. Express 20, 26511-26520 (2012). Full Paper, Figures

78. Grisby, J. Betts, B.S. Vidro, E. Culbert, R., Tsin, A.T.C. A Possible Role of Acrolein in Diabetic Retinopathy: Involvement of a VEGF/ TGFβ Signaling Pathway of the Retinal Pigment Epithelium in Hyperglycemia. Current Eye Research 2012, 37: 1045-1053, 2012. Full Paper, Figures

77. Betts, B.S., Obregon, I., and Tsin A.T.C. Cultured Muller cells from mammals can synthesize and accumulate retinyl esters. Experimental Eye Research, 101: 56-59, 2012. Full Paper; Figures

76. Grigsby, G.J., Allen, D.M., Culbert, R.B., Escobedo, G., Partheneni, K., Betts, B.S. and Tsin, A.T.C.  The Role of Sex Hormones in Diabetic Retinopathy.  In: Diabetic  Retinopathy, InTech Publishing Co., Ch:17:331-356, 2012.  Full Paper


75. Betts, B.S. Parvathaneni,K., Yendluri,. B, Grigsby, J. and Tsin, A.T.C.  Ginsenoside Rb1 Induces ARPE-19 Proliferation and reduces VEGF release. ISRN Ophthalmology, epub 2011. (doi:10.5402/2011/184295) Full Paper; Figures

74. Yust, B. G., Sardar, D. K., and Tsin, A. Phase Conjugating Nanomirrors: Utilizing Optical Phase Conjugation for Imaging. Proc. SPIE 7908:  1-7, 2011. Full Paper; Figures

73. Grigsby, J.G., Parvathaneni, K., Kalhor, S.G., Vidro, E.K., Allen, D. M. and Tsin, A.T.C.  Effects of Tamoxifen Versus Raloxifene on Retinal Capillary Endothelial Cell Proliferation. Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics, 27(3):225-233, 2011. Full PaperFigures

72.  Vidro, E.K., Yendluri, B.B., Thai, T.L. and Tsin, A.T.  NBHA Modulates Acrolein-Induced  Pro-angiogenic Cytokine Release by ARPE-19 Cells: Involvement of TGFb and SMAD3.  Current Eye Res., 36(4): 370-378, 2011.Full Paper; Figures


71.  Yust B. G., Sardar D. K., Tsin A. T., A Comparison of Methods for Determining Optical Properties of Thin Samples.  Optical Interactions with Tissues and Cells, 7562:75620C, 2010.Full Paper ; Figures


70.  Muniz, A., Betts, B., Trevino, A. R., Buddavarapu, K., Ma, J-X and Tsin, A.T.. Evidence of two retinoid cycles in the cone-dominated chicken eye.  Biochemistry, 48:  6854-6863, 2009.  Full Paper; Figures

69.  Sardar, D., Yust, B.G., Barrera, F.J., Mimun, L.C., and Tsin, A.T.C.  Optical absorption and scattering of bovine cornea, lens and retina in the visible region.  Lasers in Medical Sciences, 24: 839-847, 2009. Full Paper; Figures


68.  Vidro, E., Gee, S., Unda, T., Ma, J-X., and Tsin, A.T. Glucose and TGFb Modulate the Viability of cultured Human Retinal Pericytes and their VEGF Release.  Current Eye Research, 33: 984-993, 2008.Full Paper; Figures


67. Muniz, A. Villazana-Espinoza, E.T., A.L. Trevino, S.G., D.M. and Tsin, A.T.C novel cone visual cycle in the cone-dominated retina. Experimental Eye Research,  85: 175-184, 2007. Full Paper; Figures

66. Sardar, D.K., Swanland, G-Y., Yow, R. M., Thomas, R. J. and Tsin, A.T.C. Optical properties of ocular tissues in the near infrared region; Laser in Medical Sciences, 22: 46-52, 2007. Full Paper; Figures


65. Heimsath, E.G., Unda, R., Vidro, E., Muniz, A., Villazana-Espinoza, E. and Tsin, A.T.C. APRE-19 Cell Growth and Cell Functions in a Euglycemic Culture Media. Current Eye Research, 31: 1073-1080, 2006. Full Paper; Figures

64. Muniz, A. Villazana-Espinoza, E., Thackeray, B. and Tsin, A.T.C. 11-cis ARAT Activity in Primary Culture of Chicken Muller Cells. Biochemistry, 45: 12265-73, 2006. Full Paper; Figures

63Villazana-Espinoza, E. Harch, A. and Tsin, A.T.C. Effect of light exposure on accumulation depletion of retinyl ester in the chicken retina. Experimental Eye Research. 83: 871-876, 2006 Full Paper; Figures

62. Vogt, R., Unda,R., L.C. Yeh, E. Vidro*, J.C. Lee and Tsin, A.T.C. Bone Morphogenic Protein -4 Enhances Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Secretion by Human Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cells. Journal of Cellular Biochemistry 98: 1196-1202, 2006. Full Paper; Figures


61. Trevino, S.G., Villazana-Espinoza, E.T., Muniz, A. and Tsin, A.T.,C.  Retinoid Cycles in the Cone-Dominated Chicken Retina.  J. Expt. Biology 208: 4151-4157, 2005. Full Paper; Figures

60. Sardar, D.J., Yow, R.M., Tsin, A.T.C. and Sardar, R.  Optical scattering, absorption and polarization of healthy and neovascularized human retinal tissues.  Journal of Biomedical Optics 10: 051501-051508, 2005.Full Paper; Figures

59. Trevino, S.G., Schuschereba, S.T., Bowman, P.D. and Tsin, A.T.C.  Lecithin:Retinol Acyltransferase in ARPE19.  Experimental Eye Research  80: 897-900, 2005. Full Paper; Figures


58. Sardar, D.K., Perez, J.J., Salinas, F.S. and Tsin, A.T.C.  Optical characterization of bovine retinal tissues.  Journal of Biomedical Optics  9: 624-631, 2004. Full Paper; Figures


57.  Chen, M., Thomson, A., Tsin, A. and Basu, T.  The hepatic retinyl ester hydrolase activity is depressed at the onset of diabetes in BB rats.  British Journal of Nutrition.    89:231-238, 2003. Full Paper; Figures


56. Tsin, A.T.C., Mata, N., Villazana, E. and Vidro, E.  New Developments in the Visual Cycle: functional role of 11-cis retinyl esters in the retinal pigment epithelium.   HK J Ophthalmology 5:  25-29, 2001. Full Paper; Figures


55. Gamble, M.V., Mata, N.L., Tsin, A.T., Mertz, J.R. and Blaner, W.S.  Substrate specificities  and 13-cis-retinoic acid inhibition of human, mouse and bovine cis-retinol    dehydrogenases.Biochim.Biophys.Acta1476:3-8,2000.    Full Paper; Figures

54. Ju, J., Dixon , W.T., Tsin, A.T.C. and Basu, T.K.  The Metabolic Availability of Vitamin A is Decreased at the Onset of Diabetes in BB Rats.  Journal of Nutrition  130:  1958-1962, 2000. Full Paper; Figures

53. Tsin, A.T.C., Mata, N.L., Ray, J.A. and Villazana, E.T.  Substrate Specificities of Retinyl ester   Hydrolases in Retinal Pigment Epithelium.  Methods in Enzymology 36:604-612, 2000. Full Paper; Figures


52. Vidro, E. Basu, T.K. and Tsin, A.  Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus and vitamin A  metabolism.   Journal of Clinical Biochemistry and Nutrition,  26: 155-160, 1999. Full Paper


51. Sena,  L.P., Vanderjagt, D.J., Rivera, C, Tsin, A.T.C., Muhamadu, I., Mahamadou, O., Millson, M., Pastuszyn, A. and Glew, R.H.  Analysis of nutritional components of eight    famine foods of the Republic of Niger.  Plant Foods for Human Nutrition.  52:  17-30,  1998. Full Paper; Figures

50. Mata, N.L. and Tsin, A.T.C.  Distribution of 11-cis LRAT, 11-cis RD and 11-cis REH in  Bovine RPE Membranes.  Biochimica Biophysica Acta  1394:  16-22, 1998. Full Paper; Figures

49. Mata, N.L., Villazana, E.T. and Tsin, A.T.C.  Co-Localization of 11-cis Retinyl Esters and Retinyl Ester Hydrolase Activity in RPE plasma membrane.  Invest. Ophthal.Vis.Sci.  39:1312-1319 (1998). Full Paper; Figures

48. Mata, J.R., Mata, N.L. and Tsin, A.T.C.  Substrate specificity of retinyl ester hydrolase   activity in retinal pigment epithelium.  J. Lipid Research 39:604-612 (1998). Full Paper; Figures


47.  Mata, N.L., Mata, J.R. and Tsin, A.T.C.  Comparison of retinyl ester hydrolase activities in bovine liver and retinal pigment epithelium.  Journal of Lipid Research, 37:1947-1952 (1996). Full Paper; Figures

46.    Ziari, S.A., Mireles, V.L., Cantu, C.G., Cervantes, M., Tsin, A.T.C. and Glew, B.H.  Serum Vitamin A, Vitamin E, and Beta-Carotene Levels in Preeclamptic Women in Northen Nigeria.  American Journal of Perinatology, 13:287-291 (1996). Full Paper; Figures

45. Tuitoek, P.J., Ziari, S., Tsin, A.T.C., Rajotte, R.V., Suh, M-Y and Basu, T.P. Streptozotocin-induced diabetes in rats is associated with impaired metabolic availability of vitamin A (retinol). British Journal of Nutrition, 75:615-622 (1996). Full Paper; Figures


44. Tuitoek, P., Lakey, J., Rajotte, R., Ziari, S., Tsin, A.T.C. and Basu, T.  Effect of insulin treatment on zinc supplementation on vitamin A status in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.  Journal of Clinical Biochemistry and Nutrition, 19:165-173 (1995). Full Paper; Figures

43. Bustamante, J.J., Ziari, S., Ramirez, R.D. and Tsin, A.T.C.  Retinyl ester hydrolase and the visual cycle in the chicken eye.  American Journal of Physiology, 269: R1346-R1350 (1995). Full Paper; Figures


42.  Sun, J.H., Reiter, R.J., Hattori, A., Kaga, K., Herbert, D.C., Tsin, A.T.C.  Phototransduction related circadian changes in indoleamine metabolism in the chick pineal gland in-vivo.  J. Pineal Research, 15: 132-137 (1993). Full Paper ; Figures

41.  Tsin, A.T.C., Griffin, B.W., Mata, N.L., Yu, H-S., Williams, G.W., Crider, J.Y., and Chandler, M.L.  Vitamin A homeostasis in diabetic rat.  Journal of Clinical Biochemistry and Nutrition, 15: 23-31 (1993). Full Paper; Figures

40.  Colston, J.T., Kumar, P., Rael, E.D., Tsin, A.T.C., Valdez, J.J., and Chambers, J.P.  Detection of sub-nanogram quantities of mojave toxin via enzyme immunoassay with light addressable potentiometric detector.  Biosensor and Bioelectronics, 8: 117-121 (1993). Full Paper; Figures

39.  Yu, H-S., Tsin, A.T.C., and Reiter, R.J.  Melatonin: history, biosynthesis and assay methodology.  In: Melatonin, Biosynthesis, Physiological Effects and Clinical Application, ed. Yu, H-S., and Reiter, R.J.  Boca Raton: CRC Press, pp. 1-16, 1993. Full Paper; Figures

38.  Suzuki, T., Terakita, A., and Tsin, A.T.C.  Retinoid  metabolism and conversion of retinol to 3-dehydroretinol.  Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology, 105B, 257-261 (1993). Full Paper; Figures


37.  Mata, N.L., Tsin, A.T.C., and Chambers, J.P.  Hydrolysis of 11-cis and all-trans-retinyl palmitate by retinal pigment epithelium microsomes.  Journal of Biological Chemistry, 267: 9794-9799 (1992). Full Paper; Figures

36.  Tsin, A.T.C., and Malsbury, D.W.  Bile salt independent retinyl ester hydrolase in the bovine eye.  Brain Research Bulletin, 28: 121-125 (1992). Full Paper; Figures


35.  Sun, J-H., Reiter, R.J. Mata, N.L., and Tsin, A.T.C.  Identification of 11-cis retinal and demonstration of its light-induced isomerization in the chicken pineal gland.  Neuroscience Letters, 133: 97-99 (1991).  Full Paper; Figures


34.  Sanders-Sanchez, S., Malsbury, D. and Tsin, A.T.C.  Comparison of retinal pigment epithelial cells from the bovine eye.  Experientia, 46: 498-500 (1990). Full Paper; Figures

33.  Cammer, T., Malsbury, D., and Tsin, A.T.C.  Vitamin A metabolism in the baboon eye.  Brain Research Bulletin, 24: 755-757 (1990). Full Paper; Figures

32.  Chambers, J.P., Kumar, P., Tsin, A.T.C., and Valdez, J.J.  Partial characterization of a high-affinity (Ca2+ + Mg2+) dependent ATPase from bovine retina.  Experimental Eye Research, 50: 127-134 (1990). Full Paper; Figures


31.  Tsin, A.T.C., Phillips, T.S., and Reiter, R.J.  An evaluation on the level of retinoids in the bovine pineal body.  In: Advances in Pineal Research, Vol. 3, ed. S.F. Pang and R.J. Reiter, London: John Libbey and Co., pp. 147-150 (1989). Full Paper; Figures

30.  Tsin, A.T.C., Gentles, S.N., and Castillo, E.A.  Selective utilization of serum vitamin A for visual pigment formation. J. Experimental Biology, 142: 207-214 (1989). Full Paper; Figures

29.  Rodriguez, K.A., and Tsin, A.T.C.  Retinyl esters in the Vertebrate Neuroretina.  American Journal of Physiology, 256: R255-R258 (1989). Full Paper; Figures

28.  Phillips, S.R., Tsin, A.T.C., Reiter, R.J., and Malsbury, D.M.  Retinoids in the bovine pineal gland.  Brain Research Bulletin, 22: 259-261 (1989). Full Paper; Figures


27.  Tsin, A.T.C., Pedrozo-Fernandez, H.A., Gallas, J.M., and Chambers, J.P.  Quantum Yield of 3,4-didehydroretinol (vitamin A2).  Life Sciences, 43: 1379-1384 (1988). Full Paper; Figures

26.  Tsin, A.T.C., and Chambers, J.P.  Light and temperature effect on the retinyl ester hydrolase activity and visual pigment composition.  Experientia, 44: 20-21 (1988). Full Paper; Figures

25. Liegner, J., Tsin, A.T.C. and Taboada, J.  Effect of infrared laser radiation on the in-vitro  isomerization of all-trans retinal to 11-cis retinal.  Lasers in the Life Sciences, 2: 103-112 (1988). Full Paper; Figures


24.    Tsin, A.T.C., Flores, J.M., and Rodriguez, K.A.  Visual cells, visual pigments and retinoids in the Mongolian Jird.  Life Sciences, 41: 2085-2090 (1987). Full Paper; Figures

23.  Vaughan, M.K., Chambers, J.P., Tsin, A.T.C., Vaughan, G.M., and Reiter, R.J.  Pineal and retinal lysosomal enzyme rhythms.  Brain Research, 417: 321-326 (1987). Full Paper; Figures


22.  Lai, Y.L., Fong, D., Lam, K.W., Wang, H-M., and Tsin, A.T.C.  Distribution of ascorbate in the retina, subretinal fluid and pigment epithelium.  Current Eye Research, 5: 933-938 (1986). Full Paper; Figures

21.  Tsin, A.T.C., Morales, S.T., and Flores, J.M.  Distribution of retinoids and 3,4-didehydroretinoids in the goldfish.  Canadian Journal of Zoology, 64: 2066-2067 (1986). Full Paper; Figures

20.  Chambers, J.P., Tsin, A.T.C., Raymond, N.Y., Aldape, F., and Rodriguez, K.  Effects of glycosylation inhibitors on the frog retina.  Brain Research Bulletin, 17: 259-263 (1986). Full Paper; Figures

19.  Tsin, A.T.C.  Competition between retinol and 3,4-didehydroretinol for esterification in crude pigment epithelial cell fractions.  Experientia, 42: 952-954 (1986). Full Paper; Figures

18.  Tsin, A.T.C., Chambers, J.P., Garcia, M.H., and Flores, J.M.  Decreased hepatic retinyl palmitate hydrolase activity in weanling rats fed a low protein diet.  Biochimica et Biophysica Acta, 878: 20-24 (1986). Full Paper; Figures

17.  Tsin, A.T.C.  Enzymatic esterification of exogenous retinol and 3,4-didehydroretinol in the retinal pigment epithelium.  Journal of Experimental Zoology, 238: 311-317 (1986a). Full Paper; Figures

16.  Bridges, C.D.B., Price, J., Landers, R.A., Fong, S-L., Liou, G.I., Hong, B-S., and Tsin, A.T.C.  Interstitial Retinol-Binding Protein (IRBP) in subretinal fluid.  Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, 27: 1027-1030 (1986). Full Paper; Figures

15.  Tsin, A.T.C., and Flores, J.  The in-vivo regeneration of goldfish rhodopsin and porphyropsin.  Journal of Experimental Biology, 122: 269-275 (1986). Full Paper; Figures

14.  Tsin, A.T.C., and Lam, K.W.  Retinyl palmitate hydrolase activity in the bovine retina.  Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, 134: 1209-1214 (1986). Full Paper; Figures


13.  Lai, Y.L., Tsin, A.T.C., Lam, K.W., and Gracia, J.J.  Distribution of retinoids in the posterior segment of the rabbit eye.  Brain Research Bulletin, 15: 143-147 (1985). Full Paper; Figures

12.  Tsin, A.T.C., and Santos, F.  The 3-dehydroretinal chromophore of goldfish porphyropsin.  Journal of Experimental Zoology, 235: 181-186 (1985). Full Paper; Figures

11.  Tsin, A.T.C., Alvarez, R.A., Fong, S.L., and Bridges, C.D.B.  Conversion of retinol to 3-dehydroretinol in the tadpole.  Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology, 81B: 415-421 (1985). Full Paper; Figures


10.  Tsin, A.T.C., Alvarez, R.A., Fong, S.L., and Bridges, C.D.B.  Use of high-performance liquid chromatography in the analysis of retinyl and 3,4-didehydroretinyl compounds in tissue extracts of bullfrog tadpoles and goldfish.  Vision Research, 12: 1835-1840 (1984). Full Paper; Figures


9.  Tsin, A.T.C., Beatty, D.D., Bridges, C.D.B., and Alvarez, R.A.  Selective utilization of vitamins A1 and A2 by goldfish photoreceptors.  Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, 24: 1324-1327 (1983). Full Paper; Figures


8.  Fong, S.L., Tsin, A.T.C., Bridges, C.D.B., and Liou, G.I.  Detergents for extraction of visual pigments - types, solubilization and stability.  Methods in Enzymology, 81: 133-140 (1982). Full Paper; Figures


7.  Tsin, A.T.C., Liebman, P., Beatty, D.D., and Drzymala, R.  Rod and cone visual pigments of the goldfish.  Vision Research, 21: 943-946 (1981). Full Paper; Figures


6.  Tsin, A.T.C., and Beatty, D.D.  Visual pigments and vitamins A in the adult bullfrog.  Experimental Eye Research, 30: 143-153 (1980). Full Paper; Figures


5.  Tsin, A.T.C., and Beatty, D.D.  Scotopic visual pigment composition in the retina and vitamins A in the pigment epithelium of the goldfish.  Experimental Eye Research, 29: 15-26 (1979). Full Paper; Figures

4.  Tsin, A.T.C.  Steady-state visual pigment composition in rainbow trout.  Vision Research, 19: 1269-1271 (1979). Full Paper; Figures

3.  Tsin, A.T.C.  The visual pigment composition of rainbow trout.  Vision Research, 19: 131-135 (1979). Full Paper; Figures


2.  Tsin, A.T.C., and Beatty, D.D.  Goldfish rhodopsin: P4991.  Vision Research, 10: 1453-1455 (1978). Full Paper ; Figures


1.  Tsin, A.T.C., and Beatty, D.D.  Visual pigment changes in rainbow trout in response to temperature.  Science, 195: 1358-1360 (1977). Full Paper ;Figures